Wire Grid Polarizers
A wire grid polarizer is an array of thin metal wires (lines) closely spaced, sitting on top of a transparent substrate. It works as an absorptive polarizer and only passes through light oscillating perpendicular to the wires. The polarization of electromagnetic waves describes the orientation of wave oscillations perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
Light oscillating in parallel with the wires will generate electron movements along the wires in response to the oscillating field. The electron movement creates a travelling wave cancelling the incoming waves oscillating parallel to the wires and reflects them in the same manner as a thin metal sheet would. The components of the incoming wave, having a polarization parallel to the wires, are thus reflected with some loss due to Joule heating caused by electron movement in the wires. Since only a specific polarization is allowed through the wire grid polarizer, the outgoing wave will have a single linear polarization.
Wire Grid Polarizers have excellent heat resistance compared to organic polarizers. They work very well with applications that require high extinction ratios, high operating temperatures, or wide bandwidth ranges.
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Examples - WGP
Example of WGP pattern fabricated by NILT.